Challenge trials, ethics approvals, confounders and surveillance
The Copenhagen Interpretation of Ethics says that when you observe or interact with a problem in any way, you can be blamed for it. At the very least, you are to blame for not doing more. Even if you don’t make the problem worse, even if you make it slightly better, the ethical burden of the problem falls on you as soon as you observe it. In particular, if you interact with a problem and benefit from it, you are a complete monster.
Observational trials only implies massive surveillance
We need massive data, because we really want to estimate interaction effects.
Knit these together with observational data to argue that experimental ethics imply the demand for a pervasive surveillance state.