# Emulators and surrogate models via ML

Shortcuts in scientific simulation using ML

August 12, 2020 — August 26, 2020

Emulation, a.k.a. surrogate modelling. In this context, it means reducing complicated physics-driven simulations to simpler or faster ones using ML techniques. Especially popular in the ML for physics pipeline. I have mostly done this in the context of surrogate optimisation for experiments. See Neil Lawrence on Emulation for a modern overview.

A recent, hyped paper that exemplifies this approach is Kasim et al. (2020), which (somewhat implicitly) uses arguments from Dropout ensembling to produce quasi-Bayesian emulations of notoriously slow simulations. Does it actually work? And if it *does* quantify posterior predictive uncertainty well, can it estimate other posterior uncertainties?

Emukit (Paleyes et al. 2019) is a toolkit that generically wraps ML models for emulation purposes.

ML PDEs might be a particularly useful domain.

## 1 Model order reduction

The traditional, and still useful, approach is reduced order modelling, which has many related tricks.

## 2 References

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*Neural Networks*, Computational Intelligence in Earth and Environmental Sciences,.

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