Kenapa Harimau Disebut Maung Oleh Masyarakat Jawa-Barat?

Where is that, you ask? What?

Daerah Sunda, the extent of the Sundanese ethnic group, corresponds more or less to the province of Jawa Barat, West Java, although you more commonly hear it called Daerah Sunda round β€” the Sundanese area.

The Sundanese have their own script, language, politics and history which are entangled with, but distinct from, those of the Javanese, who make up the majority of the population of Jawa Tengah and Jawa Timur, the other major provinces of Java. Don’t be confused β€” just because someone comes from the island of Java doesn’t mean they are ethnically Javanese. There are Sundanese and other groups besides.

I am no expert in Sunda, but I can tell you a little about Sundanese music and have some technical tips about aksara sunda, and so on because of my 2015 Asialink residency.

I’m kind of fascinated by this area, and I will occasionally link to some useful resources by some real experts. (The real real experts are often writing in Indonesian or Sundanese, mind.)

Underneath the famous Islamic and Hindu elements of religion is the Sunda Wiwitan faith, although decades of suppression and refusal by the state to count it on the census have made it difficult to know how prevalent this is.

Iket Sunda:

I always forget the name of the local ceremonial blade. It’s kujang or kudi. See, e.g., Kujang.

Pranatamangsa is the name of the local astrological calendar. You can listen to Ruffles’ radio piece about that. See Gigi Priadji and his Trah Dokumenter project, creating wild and wonderful ethnologies of his region.


Arjo, Irawati Durban. 1989. β€œWomen’s Dance Among the Sundanese of West Java, Indonesia.” Asian Theatre Journal 6 (2): 168.
Arps, Bernard. 2011. β€œThe Lettuce Song and Its Trajectory.”
Barendregt, Bart, ed. 2014. Sonic Modernities in the Malay World. Brill.
Becker, Judith O. 1980. Traditional Music in Modern Java : Gamelan in a Changing Society. Honolulu : University Press of Hawaii.
β€”β€”β€”. 1984. Karawitan : Source Readings in Javanese Gamelan and Vocal Music. Vol. 23. Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies.
Beng, Tan Sooi. 2014. β€œModernizing Songs of the Forest: Indigenous Communities Negotiate Tensions of Change in Malaysia.” In Sonic Modernities in the Malay World, edited by Bart Barendregt, 353–70. Brill.
Browne, Susan. 2000. β€œGender Implications of Dangdut Kampungan: Indonesian Low-Class Popular Music, The.” Working Papers (Monash University. Centre of Southeast Asian Studies), vi.
Budi, Dinda Satya Upaja, R. M. Soedarsono, Timbul Haryono, and Tati Narawati. 2014. β€œAngklung Dogdog Lojor Pada Upacara Seren Taun.” RESITAL : JURNAL SENI PERTUNJUKAN 15 (2): 139–51.
Cahripin, Cucup. 2010. β€œMusik Ritual β€˜TARAWANGSA’ Di Desa Rancakalong, Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat.” KΓƒΒͺtΓƒΒͺg 8 (1).
Cook, Perry R. 1997. β€œPhysically Informed Sonic Modeling (PhISM): Synthesis of Percussive Sounds.” Computer Music Journal 21 (3): 38–49.
Cook, Simon. 1992. β€œGuide to Sundanese Music.” Bandung: Simon Cook.
β€”β€”β€”. 1993. β€œParallel Versions of Tembang Sunda Melodies in Different Tunings.” Oideion: The Performing Arts World-Wide 14: 55.
β€”β€”β€”. 2001. β€œThe Song Is the Thing: Patokan, Alur Lagu and the Impact of the Female Vocal Soloists on Sundanese Instrumental Music.” Contemporary Theatre Review 11 (1): 67–97.
David, Bettina. 2014. β€œSeductive Pleasures, Eluding Subjectivities: Some Thoughts on Dangdut’s Ambiguous Identity.” In Sonic Modernities in the Malay World, edited by Bart Barendregt, 249–68. Brill.
Frederick, William H. 1982. β€œRhoma Irama and the Dangdut Style: Aspects of Contemporary Indonesian Popular Culture.” Indonesia, no. 34 (October): 103–30.
Fukuoka, Shota. 2003. β€œGamelan Degung: Traditional Music in Contemporary West Java.” Globalization in Southeast Asia: Local, National, and Transnational Perspectives 1: 95.
Gramich, Rudolf. 1995. EinfΓΌhrung in Die Mitteljavanische Gamelanmusik : Mit Notenbeispielen. MΓΌnchen : Akademischer Verlag.
Greene, Paul D. 2005. Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures. Music/Culture. Middletown, Conn: Middletown, Conn. : Wesleyan University Press.
Hah, Kuohuang, and Thomas D. Ressing. 1982. β€œMusical and Acoustical Features of the Gamelan Angklung.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 71 (S1): S64–64.
Harrell, Max Leigh. 1974. The Music of the Gamelan Degung of West Java. University of California, Los Angeles.
Hellwig, Jean. 1993. β€œJaipongan: The Making of a New Tradition.” Performance in Java and Bali: Studies of Narrative, Theatre, Music, and Dance, 47–58.
Hood, Mantle. 1980. The Evolution of Javanese Gamelan. Vol. 62–64. TaschenbΓΌcher Zur Musikwissenschaft. Wilhelmshaven : Heinrichshofen.
I Wayan, Suweca, and Santosa Hendra. 1994. β€œKendang Sunda.” Mudra (JURNAL SENI BUDAYA) 2: 1–1.
Kunst, Jaap. 1973. Music in Java : Its History, Its Theory and Its Technique. The Hague : Nijhoff.
Kurniasih, Nuning. n.d. β€œKnowledge Management of Agricultural Prophecy in the Manuscript of Sundanese Society in Tasikmalaya District of West Java Indonesia.”
Kuswanto, H. 2012. β€œSaron Demung’s Timbre and Sonogram of Gamelans Gunturmadu from Keraton Ngayogyakarta.” Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia 8 (1).
Kuswanto, Heru. 2011. β€œComparison Study of Saron Ricik Instruments’ Sound Color (Timbre) on the Gamelans of Nagawilaga and Gunturmadu from.” International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, August.
Lakatos, Stephen. 2000. β€œA Common Perceptual Space for Harmonic and Percussive Timbres.” Perception & Psychophysics 62 (7): 1426–39.
Lakatos, Stephen, Perry C. Cook, and Gary P. Scavone. 2000. β€œSelective Attention to the Parameters of a Physically Informed Sonic Model.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107 (5): L31–36.
Li, Guangming. 2006. β€œThe Effect of Inharmonic and Harmonic Spectra in Javanese Gamelan Tuning (1): A Theory of the SlΓ©ndro.” In Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Acoustics & Music: Theory & Applications, 65–71. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS).
Lindsay, Jennifer. 1979. Javanese Gamelan : Traditional Orchestra of Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur : Oxford University Press.
Luvaas, Brent. 2006. β€œRe-Producing Pop: The Aesthetics of Ambivalence in a Contemporary Dance Music.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 (2): 167–87.
β€”β€”β€”. 2009. β€œDislocating Sounds: The Deterritorialization of Indonesian Indie Pop.” Cultural Anthropology 24 (2): 246–79.
β€”β€”β€”. 2010. β€œDesigner Vandalism: Indonesian Indie Fashion and the Cultural Practice of Cut β€˜n’ Paste.” Visual Anthropology Review 26 (1): 1–16.
β€”β€”β€”. 2013a. β€œMaterial Interventions: Indonesian DIY Fashion and the Regime of the Global Brand.” Cultural Anthropology 28 (1): 127–43.
β€”β€”β€”. 2013b. β€œIndonesian Fashion Blogs: On the Promotional Subject of Personal Style.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 17 (1): 55–76.
Lysloff, Rene TA. 1982. The Gong-Chime Bonang Barung in the Central Javanese Gamelan: Aspects of Musical Function and Idiom in Contemporary Practice. American Gamelan Institute.
Manuel, Peter, and Randall Baier. 1986. β€œJaipongan: Indigenous Popular Music of West Java.” Asian Music, 91–110.
Marshall, Wayne. 2014. β€œTreble Culture.” The Oxford Handbook of Mobile Music Studies 2: 43.
Martin-Iverson, Sean, U. M. Rodrigues, and B. Smaill. 2008. β€œβ€˜C’mon Commodify Us!’: Commodity Fetishism and Resistant Practice in the Bandung DIY Hardcore Scene’.” Youth, Media and Culture in the Asia Pacific Region, 177–94.
Merthayasa, I. Gde Nyoman, and Bayu Pratomo. 2008. β€œThe Temporal and Spectral Characteristics of Gamelan Sunda Music.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123 (5): 3198–98.
Mulyadi, Tubagus. 2013. β€œBentuk Pertunjukan Jaipongan Dalam Budaya Populer.” Greget 12 (1).
North, Richard. 1982. β€œDegung: My Search for the Ancient Gamelan of Sunda.” Unpublished Manuscript.β€”β€”. 1982b. Letter from R. North to Michael Wright.
Pemberton, John. 1987. β€œMusical Politics in Central Java (or How Not to Listen to a Javanese Gamelan).” Indonesia, 17–29.
Perlman, Marc. 2004. Unplayed Melodies : Javanese Gamelan and the Genesis of Music Theory. Berkeley : University of California Press.
Pickles, Joanna. 2007. β€œPunk, Pop and Protest: The Birth and Decline of Political Punk in Bandung.” RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 41 (2): 223.
Pickvance, Richard. 2005. A Gamelan Manual : A Player’s Guide to the Central Javanese Gamelan. London : Jaman Mas Books.
Pioquinto, Ceres. 1968. β€œDangdut at Sekaten.” Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 29 (19945): 59–90.
Prasetyo, Frans Ari, and Sean Martin-Iverson. n.d. β€œArt, Activism and the β€˜Creative Kampung’: A Case Study from Dago Pojok, Bandung, Indonesia.” In.
Rahn, Jay. 1996. β€œPerceptual Aspects of Tuning in a Balinese Gamelan Angklung for North American Students.” Canadian University Music Review/Revue de Musique Des UniversitΓ©s Canadiennes 16 (2): 1–43.
Ramlan, Lalan. 2013. β€œJaipongan: Genre Tari Generasi Ketiga Dalam Perkembangan Seni Pertunjukan Tari Sunda.” RESITAL : JURNAL SENI PERTUNJUKAN 14 (1).
Rosidi, Ajip. 1973. β€œMy Experiences in Recording β€˜Pantun Sunda’.” Indonesia 16 (October): 105.
Schiemer, Gregory, Bill Alves, Stephen James Taylor, and Mark Havryliv. 2003. β€œPocket Gamelan: Developing the Instrumentarium for an Extended Harmonic Universe.”
Sethares, William A. 1997. β€œSpecifying Spectra for Musical Scales.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102 (4): 2422–31.
β€”β€”β€”. 1998a. Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale. Springer London.
β€”β€”β€”. 1998b. β€œConsonance-Based Spectral Mappings.” Computer Music Journal 22 (1): 56.
β€”β€”β€”. 2007. Rhythm and Transforms. Berlin ; London: Springer.
Soemardi, Ahmad Rida, and Irendra Radjawali. 2004. β€œCreative Culture and Urban Planning: The Bandung Experience.” In The Eleventh International Planning History Conference.
Sopandi, Atik, and S. Kar. 1985. Keadaan Dan Perkembangan Kesenian Sunda Tradisional Masa Kini. Vol. 5. Proyek Javanologi.
Sorrell, Neil. 1990. A Guide to the Gamelan. Portland, Or. : Amadeus Press.
Spiller, Henry. 1996. β€œContinuity in Sundanese Dance Drumming: Clues from the 1893 Chicago Exposition.” The World of Music, 23–40.
β€”β€”β€”. 2008. Focus : Gamelan Music of Indonesia. Focus on World Music. New York : Routledge.
β€”β€”β€”. 2010. Erotic Triangles: Sundanese Dance and Masculinity in West Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Spiller, Henry, and Philip Yampolsky. 1998. β€œBetawi and Sundanese Music of the North Coast of Java: Topeng Betawi, Tanjidor, Ajeng.” Asian Music 30 (1): 205.
Sudarsono, Anugrah S., and I. Gde Nyoman Merthayasa. 2013. β€œAcoustic Analysis from Pentatonic Angklung.” In Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19:035078. Acoustical Society of America.
Sumarsam. 1995. Gamelan : Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology. Chicago [etc.] : University of Chicago Press.
β€”β€”β€”. 2013. Javanese Gamelan and the West. Eastman/Rochester Studies in Ethnomusicology. Rochester, N.Y. : University of Rochester Press.
Supriatna, Nanang. n.d. β€œThe Transformations of Tarawangsa Traditional Music in the Ritual Ceremony of Bubur Syura in Sukaluyu Village, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia.”
Sutton, Richard Anderson. 1991. Traditions of Gamelan Music in Java : Musical Pluralism and Regional Identity. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology. Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge University Press.
Toiviainen, Petri. 1997. β€œOptimizing Self-Organizing Timbre Maps: Two Approaches.” In Music, Gestalt, and Computing, edited by Marc Leman, 335–50. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1317. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Wallach, Jeremy. 2005. β€œUnderground Rock Music: And Democratization in Indonesia.” World Literature Today, 16–20.
β€”β€”β€”. 2014. β€œNotes on Dangdut Music, Popular Nationalism, and Indonesian Islam.” In Sonic Modernities in the Malay World, edited by Bart Barendregt, 269–89. Brill.
Weintraub, Andrew N. 1993. β€œTheory in Institutional Pedagogy and β€˜Theory in Practice’ for Sundanese Gamelan Music.” Ethnomusicology 37 (1): 29–39.
β€”β€”β€”. 1994. β€œTune, Text, and the Function of Lagu in Pantun Sunda, a Sundanese Oral Narrative Tradition.” Asian Music 26 (1): 175.
β€”β€”β€”. 2001. β€œInstruments of Power: Sundanese β€˜Multi-Laras’ Gamelan in New Order Indonesia.” Ethnomusicology 45 (2): 197.
Wikisource, the free online library. 2018. A Dictionary of the Sunda language.
Williams, Sean. 1989. β€œCurrent Developments in Sundanese Popular Music.” Asian Music 21 (1): 105.
β€”β€”β€”. 2001. The Sound of the Ancestral Ship: Highland Music of West Java. Oxford University Press.
Yulaeliah, Ela. 2008. β€œMusik Pengiring Dalam Upacara Ngalaksa Masyarakat Rancakalong Sumedang.” RESITAL: JURNAL SENI PERTUNJUKAN 9 (1).
β€”β€”β€”. 2012. β€œTarawangsa Dan Jentreng Dalam Upacara Ngalaksa Di Rancakalong Sumedang Jawa Barat (Sebagai Sarana Komunikasi Warga).” SELONDING 3 (1).
Zainal, Mohd RM, Salina A. Samad, Aini Hussain, and Che H. Azhari. 2009. β€œPitch and Timbre Determination of the Angklung.” American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (1): 24.
Zanten, Wim van. 1986. β€œThe Tone Material of the Kacapi in Tembang Sunda in West Java.” Ethnomusicology, 84–112.
β€”β€”β€”. 2014. β€œMusical Aspects of Popular Music and Pop Sunda in West Java.” In Sonic Modernities in the Malay World, edited by Bart Barendregt, 290:321–52. Brill.

No comments yet. Why not leave one?

GitHub-flavored Markdown & a sane subset of HTML is supported.