History, sociology and philosophy thereof

July 8, 2017 — July 21, 2021

collective knowledge
faster pussycat
game theory
how do science
incentive mechanisms
information provenance
Figure 1

I do not myself have a much to say about the philosophy of science as such. I read a lot of Lakatos that one time.

Mostly I am interested in a kind of qualitative mechanism design musing as it pertains to designing better peer-review.

1 What is science?

Not really in that vein, check out amusing curmudgeon: DC Stove, Popper and after: Four modern irrationalists.

Question: does science advance one funeral at a time?.

Figure 2: Star Scientist Funeral

2 Case study: Medicine

See history of medicine.

3 Memetics of Science

There are a lot of models of what scientific consensus might mean. (Kuhnian paradigms, degenerative research programs or whatever Lakatos called them, etc). I have now hived this off into community of science and science communication.

4 The problems of journals in particular

See publication bias.

5 Incoming

6 Sciencehacks

See soft methodology.

7 References

Ackerman, DeCanio, Howarth, et al. 2009. “Limitations of Integrated Assessment Models of Climate Change.” Climatic Change.
Agassi. 1974. The Logic of Scientific Inquiry.” Synthese.
Alon. 2009. How to Choose a Good Scientific Problem.” Molecular Cell.
Arbesman, and Christakis. 2011. Eurekometrics: Analyzing the Nature of Discovery.” PLoS Comput Biol.
Azoulay, Fons-Rosen, and Zivin. 2015. Does Science Advance One Funeral at a Time? Working Paper 21788.
Baez, and Stay. 2009. “Physics, Topology, Logic and Computation: A Rosetta Stone.”
Baldwin. 2018. Scientific Autonomy, Public Accountability, and the Rise of ‘Peer Review’ in the Cold War United States.” Isis.
Blaug. 1992. The Methodology of Economics : Or, How Economists Explain. Cambridge Surveys of Economic Literature.
Breznau, Rinke, Wuttke, et al. 2022. Observing Many Researchers Using the Same Data and Hypothesis Reveals a Hidden Universe of Uncertainty.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Budd, Dinkel, Corpas, et al. 2015. Ten Simple Rules for Organizing an Unconference.” PLoS Computational Biology.
Cartwright. 1997. “Models: The Blueprints for Laws.” Philosophy of Science.
Chaitin. 2002. “The Intelligibility of the Universe and the Notions of Simplicity, Complexity and Irreducibility.”
Chu, and Evans. 2021. Slowed Canonical Progress in Large Fields of Science.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Cross. 1982. “The Duhem-Quine Thesis, Lakatos and the Appraisal of Theories in Macroeconomics.” The Economic Journal.
Delfanti. 2020. The Financial Market of Ideas: A Theory of Academic Social Media.” Social Studies of Science.
Devezer, Nardin, Baumgaertner, et al. 2019. Scientific Discovery in a Model-Centric Framework: Reproducibility, Innovation, and Epistemic Diversity.” PLOS ONE.
Dreger. 2015. Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science.
Freedman, and Stark. 2009. What Is the Chance of an Earthquake? In Statistical Models and Causal Inference: A Dialogue with the Social Sciences.
Funtowicz, and Ravetz. 1994. The Worth of a Songbird: Ecological Economics as a Post-Normal Science.” Ecological Economics.
Gelman. 2011. “Experimental Reasoning in Social Science.” In Field Experiments and Their Critics.
Gelman, and Yao. 2021. Holes in Bayesian Statistics.” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics.
Greenberg. 2009. How Citation Distortions Create Unfounded Authority: Analysis of a Citation Network.” BMJ.
Healy. 2015. The Performativity of Networks.” European Journal of Sociology.
Hodges. 2019. Statistical Methods Research Done as Science Rather Than Mathematics.” arXiv:1905.08381 [Stat].
Hogarth, and Reder. 1987. Rational Choice: The Contrast Between Economics and Psychology.
Hutchins. 1996. Cognition in the Wild.
Ioannidis. 2005. Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Medicine.
Jaynes. 1963. “Information Theory and Statistical Mechanics.” In Statistical Physics. Brandeis University Summer Institute Lectures in Theoretical Physics.
Jeppesen, and Lakhani. 2010. Marginality and Problem-Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search.” Organization Science.
Kerkhoff. 1996. “Through the Looking Glass: The Role and Analysis of Metaphorical Language in Interdisciplinary Science.”
Kirman. 1992. Whom or What Does the Representative Individual Represent? The Journal of Economic Perspectives.
———. 2010. “Learning in Agent Based Models.”
Koch, and Peterson. 2024. From Protoscience to Epistemic Monoculture: How Benchmarking Set the Stage for the Deep Learning Revolution.”
Krenn, Pollice, Guo, et al. 2022. On Scientific Understanding with Artificial Intelligence.” arXiv:2204.01467 [Physics].
Lakatos. 1980. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Volume 1 : Philosophical Papers.
Lakoff, and Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By.
Lo, and Mueller. 2010. “WARNING: Physics Envy May Be Hazardous To Your Wealth!”
Maxwell. 2009. What’s wrong with science? Edited by L. S. D. Santamaria. Sublime.
Medawar. 1969. Induction and Intuition in Scientific Thought.
———. 1982. Pluto’s Republic.
———. 1984. The Limits of Science.
Merali. 2010. Computational Science: Error.” Nature.
Midgley. 2001. Systemic Intervention - Philosophy, Methodology and Practice (Contemporary Systems Thinking) (Contemporary Systems Thinking).
Msaouel. 2022. The Big Data Paradox in Clinical Practice.” Cancer Investigation.
Navarro. 2019. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Tensions Between Scientific Judgement and Statistical Model Selection.” Computational Brain & Behavior.
Osborne. 2022. Science Education in an Age of Misinformation.”
Palmer. 2006. “Deception and Convergence of Opinions Part 2: The Effects of Reproducibility.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation.
Randall, Ewing, Marr, et al. 2021. How Did We Get Here: What Are Droplets and Aerosols and How Far Do They Go? A Historical Perspective on the Transmission of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.” Interface Focus.
Ridley, Kolm, Freckelton, et al. 2007. An Unexpected Influence of Widely Used Significance Thresholds on the Distribution of Reported P-Values.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
Robbins. 1932. An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science.
Rzhetsky, Foster, Foster, et al. 2015. Choosing Experiments to Accelerate Collective Discovery.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Sen. 1977. Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory.” Philosophy and Public Affairs.
Sethna. 2006. Statistical Mechanics: Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity.
Singh, Barme, Ward, et al. 2022. Quantifying the Rise and Fall of Scientific Fields.” PLOS ONE.
Spranzi. 2004. Galileo and the Mountains of the Moon: Analogical Reasoning, Models and Metaphors in Scientific Discovery.” Journal of Cognition and Culture.
Stearns. 1987. Some Modest Advice for Graduate Students.” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America.
Stove. 1982. Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists.
Suppes. 2002. Representation and Invariance of Scientific Structures.
Thagard. 1993. “Societies of Minds: Science as Distributed Computing.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
———. 1994. “Mind, Society, and the Growth of Knowledge.” Philosophy of Science.
———. 1997. “Collaborative Knowledge.” Noûs.
———. 2005. “How to Be a Successful Scientist.” Scientific and Technological Thinking.
———. 2007. Coherence, Truth, and the Development of Scientific Knowledge.” Philosophy of Science.
Thagard, and Litt. 2008. “Models of Scientific Explanation.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology.
Thagard, and Zhu. 2003. “Acupuncture, Incommensurability, and Conceptual Change.” Intentional Conceptual Change.
Thurner, and Hanel. 2010. “Peer-Review in a World with Rational Scientists: Toward Selection of the Average.”
Vanberg. 2004. The Rationality Postulate in Economics: Its Ambiguity, Its Deficiency and Its Evolutionary Alternative.” Journal of Economic Methodology.
Vazire. 2017. Our Obsession with Eminence Warps Research.” Nature News.
Wagenmakers, Sarafoglou, and Aczel. 2022. One Statistical Analysis Must Not Rule Them All.” Nature.
Webb. 2014. The Development of Calculus in the Kerala School.” The Mathematics Enthusiast.
Wible. 1998. Economics of Science.
Wilson. 1998. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.
Wojtowicz, and DeDeo. 2020. From Probability to Consilience: How Explanatory Values Implement Bayesian Reasoning.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
Wolpert. 2008. Physical Limits of Inference.” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Novel Computing Paradigms: Quo Vadis?,.
———. 2018. Theories of Knowledge and Theories of Everything.” In The Map and the Territory: Exploring the Foundations of Science, Thought and Reality.
Wu, O’Connor, and Smaldino. 2022. The Cultural Evolution of Science.”
Yarkoni. 2019. The Generalizability Crisis.” Preprint.
Zimmer. 2020. How You Should Read Coronavirus Studies, or Any Science Paper.” The New York Times.