IPython was the first mass-market interactive python upgrade. The python-specific part of jupyter, which can also run without jupyter. Long story. But think of it as a REPL, a CLI-style execution environment, that is a little friendlier than naked python and has colourisation and autocomplete and such. And also is complex in confusing ways.
Here are some notes for its care and feeding.
To configure python we need a config profile
ipython profile create
IPython config is per-default located in
(ipython locate profile default)/ipython_config.py
This is all built upon
ipython so you invoke the debugger ipython-style,
from IPython.core.debugger import Tracer; Tracer()() # < 5.1 from IPython.core.debugger import set_trace; set_trace() # >= v5.1
See also generic python debugging.
Pretty display of objects
Check out the ipython rich display protocol
which allows us to render objects as arbitrary graphics.
This is especially famous in the jupyter frontends.
Some examples of how to use that are helpful.
How to use this? The
display API docs
explain that you should implement methods on your objects such as, e.g.,
lovely-numpy displays manyarray types gracefully.
This was what I used to create
latex_fragment which can display arbitrary latex inline.
This is how you use it:
def _figure_data(self, format): fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.plot(self.data, 'o') ax.set_title(self._repr_latex_()) data = print_figure(fig, format) # We MUST close the figure, otherwise # IPython’s display machinery # will pick it up and send it as output, # resulting in double display plt.close(fig) return data # Here we define the special repr methods # that provide the IPython display protocol # Note that for the two figures, we cache # the figure data once computed. def _repr_png_(self): if self._png_data is None: self._png_data = self._figure_data('png') return self._png_data
For a non-graphical non-fancy terminal, the most common useful rich display probably simply want nice formatting of big data structures.
from pprint import pprint, pformat # display it pprint(obj) # get a formatted representation pretty = pformat(obj)
Memory leak via output history
IPython’s history obsession points out that big memory allocations can hang around in jupyter (well, ipython) for quite a while.
So the output from line 12 can be obtained as
_oh. If you accidentally overwrite the Out variable you can recover it by typing
Out=_ohat the prompt.
This system obviously can potentially put heavy memory demands on your system, since it prevents Python’s garbage collector from removing any previously computed results. You can control how many results are kept in memory with the configuration option
InteractiveShell.cache_size. If you set it to 0, output caching is disabled. You can also use the
%xdelmagics to clear large items from memory.
Autocomplete breaks in ipython
The ecosystem that support tab-completion is fragile and lackadaisical.
Most recently for me. autocomplete was broken because the sensitive dependencies of
jedi are managed by cowboys.
The fix for that particular version was
conda install jedi==0.17.2