Pareto optimality, utilitarianism, and murderbots. Staple of science fiction since the first robot, and probably since all the holy books of all the religions. cf Golems, contracts with devils. This has all become much more legible and quantifiable now that the golems are weaponised 3d-printable downloads.
The trolley problem in the age of machine agency, war drones and smart cars. (Also, what is “agency” anyway?) Hell, even if we can design robots to solve ethical dilemmas, do we want to? Do instinctual human ethics have an especially good track record? What are the universals specifically?
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To file: Journal of practical ethics.
Popsci podcast Radiolab’s does an introduction to the Trolley problem
Moral machines is a deadpan attempt by MIT to elicit your raving nonsense implicit moral code:
We show you moral dilemmas, where a driverless car must choose the lesser of two evils, such as killing two passengers or five pedestrians. As an outside observer, you judge which outcome you think is more acceptable. You can then see how your responses compare with those of other people.
For humans as cogs in the machine
Try moral philosophy.