Exit/voice dilemmas

Fix this one or build another?

Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (Dowding 2016; Hirschman 1970) is an interesting lense to examine about people’s use of movements and identities. TODO: examine in the context of Schumpeterian creative destruction, and of adverse selection of who remains in a category.1

Warrens, Plazas and the Edge of Legibility addresses The Evaporative Cooling Effect.


Brubaker (2023) wrote an essay on this so that I do not have to.

Albert Hirschman’s exit-voice paradigm provides a useful lens for analyzing the current neo-categorical phase of gender politics in which attention has shifted from the content of the binary gender categories to the structure of the gender category system. During this phase of categorical destabilization, exit from originally assigned categories—in bureaucratically recorded, statistically reported, and informally negotiated forms—has become culturally legitimate and institutionally supported in a broadening range of milieus. Hirschman’s paradigm brings into focus the selectivity of exit and its potentially—and paradoxically—stabilizing consequences for the traditional gender order. The increased ease and pronounced selectivity of exit can channel dissatisfaction with gender arrangements into exit rather than voice or—as exit may itself be a form of voice—into individualized, psychologically driven forms of voice. And the selective exit of gender-nonconforming individuals from originally assigned categories can reinforce the stereotypical associations of these categories with gender conformity.

Political movements

Much to wonder about here.


Gonalons-Pons and Calnitsky (2022)


Brubaker, Rogers. 2023. “Exit, Voice, and Gender.” Sociological Theory 41 (2): 154–74.
Dowding, Keith. 2016. “Albert O. Hirschman, Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States.” In Albert O. Hirschman, edited by Martin Lodge, Edward C. Page, and Steven J. Balla. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press.
Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and David Calnitsky. 2022. “Exit, Voice and Loyalty in the Family: Findings from a Basic Income Experiment.” Socio-Economic Review 20 (3): 1395–1423.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Harvard University Press.

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