Causal inference in highly parameterized ML


TBD.

  • Léon Bottou, From Causal Graphs to Causal Invariance

    For many problems, it’s difficult to even attempt drawing a causal graph. While structural causal models provide a complete framework for causal inference, it is often hard to encode known physical laws (such as Newton’s gravitation, or the ideal gas law) as causal graphs. In familiar machine learning territory, how does one model the causal relationships between individual pixels and a target prediction? This is one of the motivating questions behind the paper Invariant Risk Minimization (IRM). In place of structured graphs, the authors elevate invariance to the defining feature of causality.

  • Nisha Muktewar and Chris Wallace Causality for Machine Learning is the book Bottou recommends on this theme.

References

Arjovsky, Martin, Léon Bottou, Ishaan Gulrajani, and David Lopez-Paz. 2020. “Invariant Risk Minimization.” March 27, 2020. http://arxiv.org/abs/1907.02893.
Besserve, Michel, Arash Mehrjou, Rémy Sun, and Bernhard Schölkopf. 2019. “Counterfactuals Uncover the Modular Structure of Deep Generative Models.” December 12, 2019. http://arxiv.org/abs/1812.03253.
Friedrich, Sarah, Gerd Antes, Sigrid Behr, Harald Binder, Werner Brannath, Florian Dumpert, Katja Ickstadt, et al. 2020. “Is There a Role for Statistics in Artificial Intelligence?” September 13, 2020. http://arxiv.org/abs/2009.09070.
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Kocaoglu, Murat, Christopher Snyder, Alexandros G. Dimakis, and Sriram Vishwanath. 2017. CausalGAN: Learning Causal Implicit Generative Models with Adversarial Training.” September 14, 2017. http://arxiv.org/abs/1709.02023.
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Ng, Ignavier, Zhuangyan Fang, Shengyu Zhu, Zhitang Chen, and Jun Wang. 2020. “Masked Gradient-Based Causal Structure Learning.” February 17, 2020. http://arxiv.org/abs/1910.08527.
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Rakesh, Vineeth, Ruocheng Guo, Raha Moraffah, Nitin Agarwal, and Huan Liu. 2018. “Linked Causal Variational Autoencoder for Inferring Paired Spillover Effects.” In Proceedings of the 27th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, 1679–82. CIKM ’18. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/3269206.3269267.
Rotnitzky, Andrea, and Ezequiel Smucler. 2020. “Efficient Adjustment Sets for Population Average Causal Treatment Effect Estimation in Graphical Models.” Journal of Machine Learning Research 21 (188): 1–86. http://jmlr.org/papers/v21/19-1026.html.
Yang, Mengyue, Furui Liu, Zhitang Chen, Xinwei Shen, Jianye Hao, and Jun Wang. 2020. CausalVAE: Disentangled Representation Learning via Neural Structural Causal Models.” July 1, 2020. http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.08697.
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