Clickbait bandit problems

Skinnerian human behaviour control

François Chollet, What worries me about AI

The science of treating consumers of modern news media like what they, for practical purposes, are; to whit, near-passive objects of surveillance and control. Relying on peoples’ rationality and/or agency to get things done has a poor track record in recent history.

What I’m specifically interested in here is the use of, e.g. bandit models to model consumers and their interactions with the media, because it’s especially rich in metaphor. This is probably a superset of the gamification idea; in that area there are a particular subset of ways to addict people that we foreground.

The “bandit problems” phrase comes, by the way, from an extension of the “one armed bandit”, the poker machine, into a mathematical model for exploring the world by pulling on the arms of a poker machine.

Pseudopolitical diversion: There is a pleasing symmetry in that modern poker machines, and indeed the internet in general, model the customer as a metaphorical poker machine upon whose arm they pull to get a reward, and that this reward is addicting the customer to pulling on the arms of their literal poker machine. It’s a two-way battle of algorithms, but one side does not update its learning algorithms based on the latest research, or have nearly the data set.

You should read this next one before you blame someone (especially a millenial, especially if you are not a millenial) for having no attention span, then take a deep look into your soul. Michael Schulson, if the internet is addictive, why don’t we regulate it?

As a consultant to Silicon Valley startups, Eyal helps his clients mimic what he calls the ‘narcotic-like properties’ of sites such as Facebook and Pinterest. His goal, Eyal told Business Insider, is to get users ‘continuing through the same basic cycle. Forever and ever.’

For a tech company in the attention economy, the longer you’re engaged by variable rewards, the more time you spend online, and the more money they make through ad revenue.

Yet we keep blaming people.

Stupid rats, running the mazes we set them, instead of dotcom startups.

Hooked: how pokies are designed to be addictive is a datavisualisation of poker machines, based on Addiction by Design by Natasha Dow Schüll and How electronic gambling machines work, by Charles Livingstone.

François Chollet argues

…social network companies can simultaneously measure everything about us, and control the information we consume. And that’s an accelerating trend. When you have access to both perception and action, you’re looking at an AI problem. You can start establishing an optimization loop for human behavior, in which you observe the current state of your targets and keep tuning what information you feed them, until you start observing the opinions and behaviors you wanted to see. A large subset of the field of AI — in particular “reinforcement learning” — is about developing algorithms to solve such optimization problems as efficiently as possible, to close the loop and achieve full control of the target at hand — in this case, us. By moving our lives to the digital realm, we become vulnerable to that which rules it — AI algorithms.

Social media and depression

Social media and television use — but not video games — predict depression and anxiety in teens

playing video games was not a predictor of either depression or anxiety, which may be because gaming has become more of a social activity. “Compared with their forerunners 15 to 20 years ago, the average video gamer is not socially isolated. It has been shown that more than 70% of gamers play their games with a friend, either physically together or online,” the researchers noted in their study.

The researchers also found some evidence that interacting with media that promoted upward social comparisons was associated with reductions in self-esteem, which in turn was associated with increases in depressive symptoms.

Allcott, Hunt. 2016. “Paternalism and Energy Efficiency: An Overview.” Annual Review of Economics 8 (1): 145–76. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-080315-015255.

Becker, Mark W., Reem Alzahabi, and Christopher J. Hopwood. 2012. “Media Multitasking Is Associated with Symptoms of Depression and Social Anxiety.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16 (2): 132–35. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0291.

Boers, Elroy, Mohammad H. Afzali, and Patricia Conrod. 2019. “Temporal Associations of Screen Time and Anxiety Symptoms Among Adolescents.” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, November, 0706743719885486. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743719885486.

Boers, Elroy, Mohammad H. Afzali, Nicola Newton, and Patricia Conrod. 2019. “Association of Screen Time and Depression in Adolescence.” JAMA Pediatrics 173 (9): 853–59. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1759.

Evans, David S. 2017. “The Economics of Attention Markets.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3044858. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3044858.

Lin, Liu yi, Jaime E. Sidani, Ariel Shensa, Ana Radovic, Elizabeth Miller, Jason B. Colditz, Beth L. Hoffman, Leila M. Giles, and Brian A. Primack. 2016. “Association Between Social Media Use and Depression Among U.S. Young Adults.” Depression and Anxiety 33 (4): 323–31. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22466.

Primack, Brian A., Ariel Shensa, César G. Escobar-Viera, Erica L. Barrett, Jaime E. Sidani, Jason B. Colditz, and A. Everette James. 2017. “Use of Multiple Social Media Platforms and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: A Nationally-Representative Study Among U.S. Young Adults.” Computers in Human Behavior 69 (April): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.11.013.

Sunstein, Cass R, and Richard H Thaler. 2003. “Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron.” SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.405940.