# Fonts

## History

I do not know much about typefaces, but do see On Snot and Fonts for some entertaining history. The 99pi episode on Fraktur/blackletter is a fun foray into the classic “German script”. An intriguing snapshot of how typesetting used to work, check out this 1897 type foundry catalogue.

## Installing fonts on my computer

Installing fonts on Ubuntu is manual point and click. Some are available as .deb packages.

On macOS, tl;dr you can just double click on a font. Or you can try to engage with a more complicated reality. Certain useful fonts are packaged using homebrew:

brew cask install cask-fonts
brew cask install font-hack-nerd-font

## Installing fonts on my website

Google fonts, among others, lists hundreds of sexy typographical options for beautifying my website. Can I use them? Yes. The underlying methods are complicated and boring. Like most web technologies there was a standards war and we are on the battlefield sifting through the damage for usable detritus.

I have two options, as a rule. Firstly I could link to a font hosted (typically) on some google server, (font linking) or I could host my own copy of a website (font embedding). The former is simple, fast, updates automatically and saves bandwidth, but does not work offline or in China, and leaks information to Google about my punters. The latter is tedious and manual but gives me more autonomy. Which is to say, neither is ideal. Maurits van der Schee summarizes the problems.

Font embedding is made especially tedious by the fact that there is just no obvious way to get embedded fonts set up from the convenient Google font overview websites which make it easy to do font linking. Maurits also summarises the solution if you want to embed:

Mario Ranftl (majodev) has created an extremely useful google-webfonts-helper (hosted on Heroku). If you want to know how you can find the source on Github (collecting stars). It makes it very easy to self-host your fonts. The steps:

2. Select one of the 682 fonts from the menu on the left
3. Copy-paste presented CSS code into your stylesheet in the directory css
5. Unzip the files and upload them to your website in the directory fonts

Thank you Mario, that is super! Alternatively, if you have your own fonts and need them in such a convenient zip file, you may try fontsquirrel.com’s Webfont Generator.

## Coding/terminal fonts

Fonts that ideally look good in monospace and make it easy to distinguish similar characters. (My personal bugbear here is distinguishing different quotes, e.g. "“”). There is a website for this ProgrammingFonts.org, where you can see all the alternatives of note. Google also maintain a web-font-oriented database. Your OS ships with some, maybe Ubuntu Mono or Inconsolata or such. Or you can level up your nerd OCD by using Nerdfonts.com, which distributes cult developer-friendly fonts with extra glyphs for … weird UI icons and such? Codeface provides a gallery / repository of such fonts.

• Source Code Pro in the light variant is my favourite font for coding so far
• Office Code Pro is based on Source Code Pro but tweaked “specifically for text editors and coding environments”. Looks nicer but AFAICT missing Greek.
• Hack is a popular open source option
• Roboto Mono is everywhere thanks to Google backing
• Fira Code has fancy coding ligatures, which is a whole coding hipster thing.
• Anonymous Pro - A family of four fixed-width fonts designed with coding in mind.
• DejaVu Sans Mono - A font family based on the Vera Fonts.
• Inconsolata - A monospace font, designed for code listings and the like.
• Input - A flexible system of fonts designed specifically for code.
• Meslo - Customized version of Apple’s Menlo font.
• Operator Mono - A surprisingly usable alternative take on a monospace font (commercial).
• Powerline Fonts - Repo of patched fonts for the Powerline plugin.
• Source Code Pro - A monospaced font family for user interfaces and coding environments.
• Mono Lisa is a pretty-looking font with many coding-relevent features, but at EUR69 I cannot be buying it right now instead of paying rent.

## International fonts

SIL provide many useful fonts for less mainstream languages, including Doulos which to my geeky pleasure supports the International Phonetic Alphabet.

wget http://packages.sil.org/sil-repository.deb && sudo dpkg -i sil-repository.deb
apt install font-sil-doulos

m-plus fonts seemed like minimalist sans-serif fonts designed to support Japanese then threw a bunch of other useful stuff in there too, targeting coders and even LaTeX users. included in ubuntu.

In addition to European letters used in many Western European languages, Japanese characters that including Kana glyphs and more than 5,300 Kanji glyphs, and major international phonetic symbols, operators, special symbols, etc. are also prepared.

All Latin glyph sets were completed with Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, and IPA Extensions. And most of Greek, Cyrillic, Vietnamese, and extended glyphs and symbols were prepared too.

I also need Sundanese: Sundanese-unicode-2-0-ttf,

Google’s Noto font famously aspires to support all languages and claims Sundanese, as does Prada, but I have not tested them myself.

IBM’s Plex font is their corporate logo font. It claims good international support.

## LaTeX

Esp for mathematics.

I am not the person to ask about the intimate details of LaTeX font hell but see TUG font catalogue for traditional LaTeX math font support and mathspec for XeLaTeX font support. To understand the intricacties of how maths typesettings works work check out the Free math Survey. This is outdated now but is a good conservative starting point AFAICT.

## Classic LaTeX math

Or nearly-classic, using Type 1 postscript fonts and whatever dark magic LaTeX uses to make those go.

tlmgr install \
ebgaramond \
ebgaramond-maths \
newtx \
gfsneohellenicmath \
mathdesign \
stix2-otf \
fira \
firamath-otf \
eulervm \
mathpazo \
sfmath \
psnfss \
rsfs

tl;dr There is some complicated set of interactions between main font and math font and possibly a special greek font and typesetting engine, and which format my fonts happen to be in (which BTW changes how one must install them, which is in turn dependent upon the OS I am using) and which features I want and what my text encoding is, and if I get any one of those wrong there are weird and unhelpful errors and the whole thing is very far from my top priority so I am trying not to learn anything more about it and will do my best to be unable to advise any further. Fortunately if I cargo-cult some example configurations things seem to work out OK.

These seem to work:

% Garamond
\usepackage[garamond]{mathdesign}
% Garamond
\usepackage[garamond]{mathdesign}
%garamond
\usepackage{fourier}
% Utopia
\usepackage[utopia]{mathdesign}
% Times
\usepackage{mathptmx}
% Times
\usepackage{mbtimes}
% Palatino
\usepackage{mathpazo}

### unicode-math

The experimentally modern world of unicode-math (i.e. typesetting using modern unicode encodings and OpenType fonts) has a unicode math font list.

One sets it up via

tlmgr install \
unicode-math \
fontspec \
lualatex-math \
l3kernel \
l3packages \
l3experimental

### unicode-math

The experimentally modern world of unicode-math has a unicode math font list.

Unicode maths is currently supported by the following freely available open source fonts:

• Latin Modern Math (Bogusław Jackowski, Janusz M. Nowacki, a minimal one, attempts to look like the 80s font Computer modern) — tlmgr install lm-math
• Tex Gyre family (looks kinda like the fonts that every word processor uses) — tlmgr install tex-gyre tex-gyre-math
• Asana Math (Apostolos Syropolous) — tlmgr install Asana-Math
• STIX2 (STIpub) — tlmgr install stix2-otf and
• XITS Math (Khaled Hosny) — tlmgr install xits
• Libertinus Math (Philipp H. Poll and Khaled Hosny) — tlmgr install libertinus
• Fira Math (Xiangdong Zeng) — tlmgr install firamath.

The following fonts are proprietary with OpenType maths support:

## Font mangling

You can alter fonts! Programatically!

Schmelvetica is an example of how you can modify a font algorithmically, based on the parodical Smelvetica, and presuably Hellvetica. Or, for a flakey but cute hack using machine learning, SVGVAE will algorithmically design fonts! For the moment, quirky nasty fonts.

## Retro OCR fonts

Magnetic Ink fonts and their progeny give you that future-from-the-70s feel. The classics are AFAICT Westminster or OCA-A (which is free)

## Miscellaneous fonts

• Clara I bookmarked for reasons that I have now forgotten. But it has an evocative blurb:

The family includes italic, bold, bold italic, and small capitals, while the character set includes Greek, Cyrillic, ogham, phonetic and mathe­matical ranges, scribal abbrevi­ations, and other specialist characters. The fonts also include some Open­type layout features (such as ligature substi­tution, small capitals, and old-style numerals), as well as some variant forms for particular languages.

• BellTopo Sans, Sarah Bell’s font inspired by maps

• Pixel fonts

• interface, a UI font

sudo apt-get install fonts-powerline
• Sparks is a font which uses converts numbers into miniature graphs.