Pluralism



Placeholder for various models of how to get along as a diverse society, without falling into acrimony.

I think of this as different than community norms. Hanging out with my tribe is easier; we can generally work out what is fun for us. Working out how to operate in a larger society with everyone being recognisably different is always going to be harder, and it will often feel wrong. But it is necessary; the alternatives seem to be conflict or tyranny.

Pluralistic projects

Solidarity

A popular Marxist/labour movement framing; I have not seen much of it recently. TBD.

Norms that tolerate diversity

Musa al-Gharbi in the essay Who gets to define what is racist? mentions some recent research in cultivating equity in norms:

[…] training on ‘multiculturalism’ seems to reinforce race-essentialism among those who go through it; teaching whites about racial privilege seems to do little to change attitudes or behaviors towards African Americans—it merely increases resentment(Wilton, Apfelbaum, and Good 2019) against lower-SES whites. Metanalysis after metanalysis fails to find strong empirical links between “implicitly racist” attitudes and actual racist behaviors “in the world” (Jerolmack and Khan 2014). It seems as though the primary effect of such training, among those who go through it, is higher levels of racial resentment. Yet entire industries have cropped up to help people understand and fight their implicit racial biases.

Perhaps, e.g. Marisa Abrajano would be good to consult on the various hispanic communities in the US and these dynamics. I would prefer some references about Australia though. It is very easy to imagine first-generation immigrants having different notions of racial justice than their children in any given country.

Connects to various modern flashpoints such as microinequities.

WEIRDness

TBD; I am curious about the interaction between WEIRD (i.e. western-lineage) societies and pluralism; What types of interactions are fostered within, or without, WEIRD cultures?

References

Bernhard, Helen, Urs Fischbacher, and Ernst Fehr. 2006. Parochial altruism in humans.” Nature 442 (7105): 912–15.
Carrell, Scott E., Mark Hoekstra, and James E. West. 2015. The Impact of Intergroup Contact on Racial Attitudes and Revealed Preferences.” Working Paper 20940. National Bureau of Economic Research.
DellaPosta, Daniel. 2020. Pluralistic Collapse: The ‘Oil Spill’ Model of Mass Opinion Polarization.” American Sociological Review 85 (3): 507–36.
Forscher, Patrick S., Chelsea Mitamura, Emily L. Dix, William T. L. Cox, and Patricia G. Devine. 2017. Breaking the Prejudice Habit: Mechanisms, Timecourse, and Longevity.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 72 (September): 133–46.
Gilens, Martin, and Benjamin I. Page. 2014. Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens.” Perspectives on Politics 12 (03): 564–81.
Glas, René, Sybille Lammes, Michiel de Lange, and Joost Raessens, eds. 2019. The Playful Citizen: Civic Engagement in a Mediatized Culture. Amsterdam University Press.
Jackson, Matthew O. 2009. Social Structure, Segregation, and Economic Behavior.” Presented as the Nancy Schwartz Memorial Lecture, February.
Jerolmack, Colin, and Shamus Khan. 2014. Talk Is Cheap: Ethnography and the Attitudinal Fallacy.” Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2): 178–209.
Maerz, Seraphine F. 2019. Simulating Pluralism: The Language of Democracy in Hegemonic Authoritarianism.” Political Research Exchange 1 (1): 1–23.
Mohseni, Aydin, Cailin O’Connor, and Hannah Rubin. 2019. On the Emergence of Minority Disadvantage: Testing the Cultural Red King Hypothesis.” Synthese 198 (6): 5599–5621.
Murphy, Ryan H. 2020. Markets Against Modernity: Ecological Irrationality, Public and Private. Capitalist Thought : Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
Pettigrew, Thomas, and Linda Tropp. 2000. “Does Intergroup Contact Reduce Prejudice? Recent Meta-Analytic Findings.” In, 93–114.
Richerson, Peter J., and Robert Boyd. 2001. The Evolution of Subjective Commitment to Groups: A Tribal Instincts Hypothesis.” Evolution and the Capacity for Commitment 3: 186–220.
Rutherford, Alex, Dion Harmon, Justin Werfel, Alexander S. Gard-Murray, Shlomiya Bar-Yam, Andreas Gros, Ramon Xulvi-Brunet, and Yaneer Bar-Yam. 2014. Good Fences: The Importance of Setting Boundaries for Peaceful Coexistence.” PLoS ONE 9 (5): e95660.
Simonovits, Gábor, Gábor Kézdi, and Péter Kardos. 2017. Seeing the World Through the Other’s Eye: An Online Intervention Reducing Ethnic Prejudice.” American Political Science Review, November, 1–8.
Wilton, Leigh S., Evan P. Apfelbaum, and Jessica J. Good. 2019. Valuing Differences and Reinforcing Them: Multiculturalism Increases Race Essentialism.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 10 (5): 681–89.

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