Non-uniform signal sampling

Discrete sample representation of continuous signals without a grid

January 8, 2019 — August 8, 2023

Figure 1

Signal sampling without a uniform grid and thus a simple Nyquist Theorem. It turns out that this generalisation is not necessarily fatal for the theory.

There are reviews in a functional analysis setting (Piroddi and Petrou 2004; Babu and Stoica 2010; Unser 2000; Adcock et al. 2014; Adcock and Hansen 2016).

This problem AFAICT becomes much easier to state at least if one can use priors to provide a theoretically tractable model of the nonuniformly sampled signal. The Gaussian process formalism for probabilistic spectral analysis, is one such method is even computationally tractable using the methods of e.g. Saatçi (2012).

For FFT of unevenly sampled points, you can try the Non uniform FFT. (“NuFFT”)

Implementations of non-uniform sampling methods.

🏗 Lomb—Scargle periodogram and its uses.

1 Neural methods

For now see implicit neural representations and neural ODEs.

2 References

Adcock, and Hansen. 2016. Generalized Sampling and Infinite-Dimensional Compressed Sensing.” Foundations of Computational Mathematics.
Adcock, Hansen, Roman, et al. 2014. Generalized Sampling: Stable Reconstructions, Inverse Problems and Compressed Sensing over the Continuum.” In Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics.
Aldroubi, and Gröchenig. 2001. Nonuniform Sampling and Reconstruction in Shift-Invariant Spaces.” SIAM Review.
Amini, and Marvasti. 2008. Convergence Analysis of an Iterative Method for the Reconstruction of Multi-Band Signals from Their Uniform and Periodic Nonuniform Samples. Sampling Theory in Signal & Image Processing.
Babu, and Stoica. 2010. Spectral Analysis of Nonuniformly Sampled Data – a Review.” Digital Signal Processing.
Benedetto. 1992. Irregular Sampling and Frames.” In Wavelets: A Tutorial in Theory and Applications. Wavelet Analysis and Its Applications.
Broersen, Piet M. T. 2005. Time Series Analysis for Irregularly Sampled Data.” IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 16th IFAC World Congress,.
Broersen, P. M. T., and Bos. 2006. Estimating Time-Series Models from Irregularly Spaced Data.” In IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.
Du, Collins, Tenenbaum, et al. 2021. Learning Signal-Agnostic Manifolds of Neural Fields.” In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems.
Dupont, Kim, Eslami, et al. 2022. From Data to Functa: Your Data Point Is a Function and You Can Treat It Like One.” In Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning.
Eldar, and Oppenheim. 2000. Filterbank Reconstruction of Bandlimited Signals from Nonuniform and Generalized Samples.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.
Feichtinger, and Gröchenig. 1989. Multidimensional Irregular Sampling of Band-Limited Functions in Lp-Spaces.” In Multivariate Approximation Theory IV. International Series of Numerical Mathematics / Internationale Schriftenreihe Zur Numerischen Mathematik / Série Internationale d’Analyse Numérique.
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Feichtinger, and Strohmer. 1992. Fast Iterative Reconstruction of Band-Limited Images from Non-Uniform Sampling Values.” In SpringerLink.
Feichtinger, and Werther. 2000. Improved Locality for Irregular Sampling Algorithms.” In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2000. ICASSP ’00. Proceedings.
Fessler, and Sutton. 2003. Nonuniform Fast Fourier Transforms Using Min-Max Interpolation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.
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Maravic, and Vetterli. 2005. Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals with Finite Rate of Innovation in the Presence of Noise.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.
Margolis, and Eldar. 2008. Nonuniform Sampling of Periodic Bandlimited Signals.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.
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Marvasti, Farokh. 2012. Nonuniform Sampling: Theory and Practice.
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Marvasti, F. A., and Chuande. 1990. Parseval Relationship of Nonuniform Samples of One- and Two-Dimensional Signals.” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing.
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