Much lighter, NASA GISS: Panoply 3 is a simple vieer for certain popular scientific data format, netCDF, HDF and GRIB Data.
There are a variety of map systems to visualize geospatial data in the browsers, i.e. do maps you can click on.
A simple way to get started here is to encode data in GeoJSON standard. (Maybe see a more casual introduction if you are interested in that.) Ifter the standard of such things there is also a slightly more refined standard called TopoJSON which has less market share.
Various providers give us map tiles (i.e. what we would call the map itself, showing coastlines and train tracks and forests etc): OpenStreetMap, Mapbox, Stamen or Thunderforest. These tiles are used as an underlay by the various geospatial data vis libraries. I’m explaining this badly, but I think if you just give it a try you will acquire intuitions reasonably fast.
Leaflet is designed with simplicity, performance and usability in mind. It works efficiently across all major desktop and mobile platforms, can be extended with lots of plugins, has a beautiful, easy to use and well-documented API and a simple, readable source code that is a joy to contribute to.
Leaflet uses the OpenStreetMaps mapping system per default. It is lacking some of the integrations that Google Maps has, but also some of the horrible spyware.
A classic browser interactive mapping provider. The usual caveats about google apply. For our purposes the important thing is that we can create a Data layer which plots for quantitative data visualisation, and this data layer can come from other languages such as Python and R.
Plotly is not a mapping library but it will plot maps happily as part of other plots.
e.g. Kerry Halupka notes How to create maps in Plotly with non-US locations.
For example, create your geographic visualisations using python +
leaflet.js, then generate
Possibly useful: folium.
See spatial data in R.
Mapping non-geospatial things
Using maps as visualisations of non geospatial things is a whole other field. What if you can leverage spatial intuition by pretending something is spatial? e.g., as mentioned at knowledge topology, Franka Miriam Brückler’s famous map of Middle Math.
That sounds fun and I’m sure it is studied elsewhere.