The tidyverse is a miniature ecosystem within R which has certain coding conventions and tooling to make certain data analysis easier and prettier, mostly based on functional programming.
Certainly some things are hard and annoying in base R. Note that not everything is perfect in the tidyverse either — see Norm Matloff’s critique which argues against it on pedagogic grounds (and also has some good design critique). I tend to think that the tidyverse has better return at intermediate levels of sophistication, but a steeper learning curve at the start.
Most lucid explanation of everything is Hadley Wickham’s Advanced R book which is free and only“Advanced” in the sense that your knowledge of R will be advanced after reading it, not in the sense of being forbiddingly complicated for beginners.
Helpful for the visually-inclined: tidyverse topic maps: